Bicycles in Urban Transport: A Review of the Indian Scenario

This paper seeks to understand the role of bicycles in urban India with reference to past studies and current Census and accident data. Using previous studies and analysis of Comprehensive Mobility Plans of eleven cities, this paper looks at the potential of bicycle use with respect to public transport trips, educational trips, and shopping/social/recreational trips. Bicycle ownership and use patterns in urban India are assessed with reference to Census data and previous studies. Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) data for 2008 pertaining to thirty cities is analyzed to find out the modal share of trips across all modes including walk and cycle, share of cycle trips vis-a-vis population, share of cycle trips vis-a-vis absolute number of cycle trips, relation between share of cycle trips and average trip length, relation between cycle trips and per capita trip rate, and relation between share of cycle trips and percentage of trips accessible within 15 minutes. The share of different modes in trips made by urban 'other workers' from Census of India, 2011 is analyzed to find the distance ranges for different modes, maximum range of bicycle, and also the distribution of modes by distance ranges. National Crime Records Bureau data from 2011 to 2015 for 53 million-plus cities is used to study bicyclists' vulnerability to road accidents in Indian cities. The paper also seeks to understand the present concerns regarding availability of proper facilities for bicycling in urban India. The key findings of the present study pertain to bicycle use in large cities, bicycle use in cities with population less than 2 million, and bicycle use in non-work trips. 

Premjeet Das Gupta, Kshama Puntambekar, Assistant Professor, Planning, SPA Bhopal
Problem of Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Jabalpur City

The ever-increasing population and inappropriate urban planning has generated myriad urban problems such as congestion pollution slum, sanitation and solid waste management. The problem of sanitation and solid waste on the one hand has created unhygienic cities and on the other has destroyed the urban fabric. The problem of hygiene and poor urban conditions is very common is Indian metropolitan cities like Jabalpur. These problems are largely responsible for the deteriorating quality of life in the city The present paper discusses several issues related with the availability of sanitation facilities, generation of solid waste and its management in Jabalpur. The paper briefly discusses probable solutions to these problems that may be helpful in achieving its goal of becoming a smart city .

Rambooshan Tiwari, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Government Lahiri College, Chirimiri, Chhattisgarh and Jagadish Singh, Professor, Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
The Street Vendors' Right to City: A Study of Vending Zone Initiative in Bhubaneswar

In the era of globalisation the right to city has become a very crucial matter and the street vendors form a vital part of the urban population who are deprived of their right to city They contribute very valuable services to the urban dwellers and they are an integral part of our cities. Thus it is very much essential that the right of this segment of population to earn its livelihood is protected. The Government of India had some policies for regulating street vending and recently it has come up with the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014. Any act or policy cannot work until and unless there is participation of people for whom it is made. So the participation of the street vendors is very crucial to ensure the success of this act. Cities like Bhubaneswar used some innovative methods to control the menaces of unregulated street vending. The present paper intends to study the situation of street vendors, street vending policies and the challenges therein. It also examines the vending zone initiative in Bhubaneswar. Interviews were conducted and government policies were scrutinized. It shows how participation and appropriation in the decision making regarding the production of urban space by the city dwellers are important in ensuring the right to city.

Suchismita Satpathy, Guest Faculty, TlSS Hyderabad and K. Laxmi Narayan, Retired Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Hyderabad
Assessing Mode Choice Behaviour of Tourist in Delhi

Mode choice is one of the most crucial stages in transportation planning process, which influences policy making decisions. This research examines how the domestic tourist characteristics and attributes of different travel modes influence tourist's choice of travel. A relationship is developed between modes and its influencing parameters using binary Logit model. The model for tourist trips has been developed for two alternatives namely, Taxi vs. Hop On Hop Off (HOHO) and Taxi vs. City Bus. Model predicts the mode choice probability of choosing HOHO bus as 20% and city bus as 11 % as against taxi, with most influential parameters as In-vehicle time, Out-vehicle time, Waiting time and Cost. The sensitivity analysis predicts a decrease in ridership by 11.21 % with an increase in waiting time of 20% for HOHO users and for 20% increase in cost will reduce its usage probability by 11.02%, whereas for city bus users in vehicle time is relatively more significant. This paper presents the results of the analysis carried out.

Naina Gupta and Bhaskar Gowd Sudagani, Assistant Professor, Transport Planning Department, SPA Delhi
Basic Housing Amenities in West Bengal During 2001 and 2011

In this paper the changes and differentials in housing amenities particularly with respect to the availability of safe drinking water, electricity and toilet facilities in West Bengal by districts during 2001 and 20 11 have thus been studied. Both "Intra" and "Inter" temporal variations for those amenities have been worked out. As far as the inter-comparison between 2001 and 2011 is concerned, one finds improvement in respect of each of the three facilities while for intra-comparison for 2011, one observes that on the average, compared to drinking water, peoples are better off in case of electricity and compared to that they are rather well in case of toilet facilities. It is worthy to note that water facility is the worst in both the periods concerned. Finally, classification of districts of West Bengal has been made according to the availability of the various facilities. Drinking water needs more attention amongst the three amenities, than toilet and later electricity. In general, condition of amenities in rural districts is poorer than urban districts.

Jagabandhu Saha, Department of Economics, Visva Bharati, West Bengal, India and Biswatosh Sengupta, Former Addl. Director-in-Charge, Socio Economic Planning, KMDA, West Bengal, India
Accessibility to Parks and Open Spaces in Delhi: An Empirical Analysis

To ensure effective planning for open space, and recreation, it is essential that the needs of the local people are known. Therefore it is worthwhile to analyse the nature of variation and similarities in user characteristics. Although a number of parks are present at the same hierarchical level, its nature and user characteristics may vary depending upon the locational attributes. In this study we have taken parks of different hierarchy i.e. a neighbourhood park, a district park and a city park to analyse the user characteristics. The survey was done to analyse the variation in the user characteristics between weekdays and holidays, variation in the user characteristics between morning, afternoon and evening visitors in the different parks. The relative location or situational setting of the parks selected for study is of varied character and thereby it seems apparent that there would be variation in the user characteristic as well. This analysis reflects a need for creation as well as preservation of green areas for recreational and leisure time activities through planned initiatives. A periodic monitoring of the issue relating the availability of open space and pattern of user characteristics will be of importance in efficient and appropriate planning and management.

Nidhi Gandhi, Assistant Professor, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, Delhi
Estimation of Solid Waste Generated During Thaipoosam Festival in Sivaganga District, Tamil Nadu

Solid waste materials are produced from various activities of human beings in the society. It is of mixed composition in and around the cities particularly at bus terminals, railway stations, and sacred places like temples. In Sivagangai District, people from Karaikudi - Chettinadu region and Devakottai region start their Pathayathirai (pilgrimage on foot) from their native places to Palani and take it as their annual devotional duty. Moreover, the magnanimous villagers enroute to Palani provide water bottles / packets, morning tiffin, afternoon lunch and night dinner, free of cost. The pilgrims may avail these facilities all along the way to Palani. Therefore, the severity of solid waste management is crucial and unavoidable during the Thai Poosam festival, especially along the roadsides through which the pathayathirai devotees take their pilgrimage t rip. The present study, therefore, tries to study and estimate different types of solid waste generated and the quantities of each item along the roadsides from Pillayarpatti in Sivagangai district to Kottampatti in Madurai district. After annathanam (food distribution) is over, the whole place is full of trash. Though, the festival is a very good practice, people do not know the proper way in which it could be done. Only quality and hygienic food in sustainable packaging should be allowed for the annathanam and local bodies should start awareness programmes to sensitize people on the issue.

R.Karthigarani and V.Elangovan, Arumugam Pillai Seethai Ammal College, Thirupathur, Sivagangai District, Tamil Nadu
Book Review

D.K. Srivastava and K.S. Kavi Kumar (eds) Environment and Fiscal Reforms in India

Reviewed by V N Alok , Associate Professor of Public Finance, Indian Institute of Public Administration and Ambar Zahara Consultant, Indian Institute of Public Administration
Book Review:

Darshini Mahadevia (eds) Shelter Security in Urban India-Pathways, Barriers and Outcomes

Reviewed by Chetan Vaidya, Director, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Book Review

Suptendu P. Biswas:  Assorted City: Equity, Justice and Politics in Urban Services Delivery

Anjali Pancholy, Associate Town and Country Planner, Town & Country Planning Organization, New Delhi